Being able to print multi-page documents as a booklet in South Natomas by adjusting the print settings in any windows application is crucial. Make sure that you save the configuration shortcut for future use.
Booklet Printing Services in Sacramento Explained
For starters, if you’re looking for printing services in South Natomas you’ll probably save time, money, and headaches if you hired or called a professional or commercial printer in South Natomas.
But, if you want to try and go for printing on your own, here’s what you should do:
First, open the print dialog box from the application where you are printing for most applications.
Click file and then print or press ctrl + P on your keyboard.
Select your printer from the drop-down menu or selection box and then click properties preferences or printer properties depending on the application.
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Click the printing shortcuts tab select a printing shortcut from the list to use as a base. This is because the shortcut will not save correctly unless you have selected a previously created shortcut. If you’re having trouble with this process, make sure to contact your nearest Commercial Printer in South Natomas.
Paper Quality with Booklet Printing Services in Sacramento?
Next, you’re going to want to click the paper quality tab and then select the paper size of the original document. Then, click the finishing tab and finally, click the print on both sides check box.
From here, it’s smart to click the booklet layout drop-down menu and then select a binding option change your page orientation if desired.
Let’s head over and click the effects tab followed by a click on the ‘print document on option’ and then select your paper size from the drop-down menu.
Breakthrough Secrets on How to Build Business Credit Quickly
Moving forward, click the output tab from the staple drop-down menu, select fold and stitch to fold and staple the booklet automatically return to the printing shortcuts tab. At RushMyPrints – your areas best Printing Services in South Natomas, we found that following these steps below really makes the process go smoothly for you.
Here we’re going to have you click save as type a shortcut name in the text field and then click OK.
One more time, you’ll have to click OK followed by selecting print in order to print fold and staple the Booklet Printing Services or documents according to your settings you desired!
Booklet Printing Services in Marketing For Sacramento
Booklet Printing Services throughout history, have been known to be very successful for marketing, educating and gaining awareness. Especially if you’re a startup company that needs a printing service right now.
Incorporate booklet printing into your marketing efforts for a sure way to get results.
Booklets Printing in South Natomas can help you to become an expert in your field.
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When putting together your booklet or Bulk Order Printing Services, don’t for get to incorporate images because visuals are the best way to catch a customer’s attention.
Booklets help demonstrate your products and services making purchasing easy.
good morning or good afternoon or goodevening wherever you are in the world hi I'm Nicky from Easy Online Biz Solutionsand today we're talking about citations business citations citations are likehaving digital business cards across the internet which they're nothing more thanan online business card containing your business name your address and yournumber that's an N ap posted on business directories on business directories yourcitations the N ap mentions of your business are represented as listingsdirectory profiles of your business here is the essential part what makes up aperfect business citation well the perfect citation consists of quotingyou're up to date and create business in AP consistently exactly the same acrossany directory on your website as well so if you have Street as the whole word usethat the whole time or if you have it st use that but make sure it's writtenexactly the same no matter where you are that's it it's pretty simple yet themajority of local businesses struggle with poor local rankings just becausethey are far from maintaining perfect citation profile now I've just talked alittle bit about consistency but consistency is very importantbecause it requires a single rule to be carefully observed not to toleratebusiness citations that are out-of-date or incorrect so Google your businessname and look at all the listings including the directory listings likeyup local search for Australia its white pages and yellowpages fixing your inconsistent armed citations will improve your onlinebusiness profile and thrust will give Google good signal about ranking yourbusiness as an authority in your niche and area now what can go wrong if yourcitations are inconsistent well Google is going to be confused as to which isyour business name your office address or even your phone numberconfusing Google has never been a good thing especially if you wish it to favoryou in its in-depth you risk your localist rankings and that's really ahigh price to pay so where do you think is the best place to have the citationsyes online directories is the correct answerso start by cleaning your existing job listings and make sure they have thesame same in AP and then Google your main competitors and see what otherdirectories they are on then create free listings on all these directories butplease note that you only want to list on directories that are relevant to yourniche or industry so if you're a handyman person you do not want to havea listing on fashion or relationship Directory Sites Google likes relevantand consistency so what are you for training three citations are like havingdigital business cards across the net you would be stupid not to use as freeinternet marketing tools what more effective and efficientinternet marketing if yes Smita our application for an internetmarketing strategy session with us go to our website and easy online bizsolutions like services and then clear improve your internet marketing assumesit's online sorry don't internet marketing strategysession click that if it's just a simple question that you want to answer this isjust at MDOT ma / easy online best solution because in fact that internetmarketing is the most important part of any business or product so talk soongoodbye.
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Also, studies show booklet printing is a successful and affordable way to reach an audience and gain their trust.
If you like to read more about booklet printing go to RushMyPrints.
And visit our Market Smarts Section.
RushMyPrints is your source for high quality quick turn booklet printing services and Bulk Order Printing.
From programs to posters or booklets the sky is the limit with RushMyPrints in Sacramento
Most importantly, we are 100% custom and able to fulfill even the most complex projects. We are able to take your order and deliver Rush Printing Services in a jiffy.
RushMyPrints offers both heat-set web and sheetfed printing which means your project will always be printed the most efficient way while providing excellent quality.
We specialize in printing for corporate publishing, and agency professionals who expect nothing less than impeccable quality and hassle free project management.
Get your instant quote now at RushMyPrints.
Why Should Startups use Rush Printing Services in South Natomas?
Vendor credit the secret ingredient for any business to start to get approved for real business credit How do you really start the business credit building process? Just because you have a social security number doesn't mean that you have a credit profile for example, every child in this country is born with a social security number, but they don't actually establish credit for that social security number until they apply for new credit are approved and that credit is reported to the personal credit reporting agencies When credit is applied for approved and reported then and only then will that individual have established credit? Once accounts are reported to the consumer agencies, including Experian Equifax and TransUnion After six months FICO will then issue that consumer an actual credit score Here's a deeper.
Look at the process first credit is applied for Second the applicant is approved for credit that reports to the credit reporting agencies Thirdly, the credit is reported and trade lines are now established Fourthly as multiple accounts are reported a credit profile is established Finally due to the reporting of trade lines and establishment of a credit profile enough information is now available For a credit score to be issued Now that we've looked at how the process works.
Let's look deeper into how it starts Somebody who has no trade lines reporting has no credit profile or score established So if this person was to walk into a bank and try to get a credit card car loan mortgage or other Financing their credit would be pulled But due to a lack of credit they would be denied financing all types of financing if The same person walked in and applied for store credit like staples Lowe's Home Depot Walmart Target or other retailers They would also be denied for the same reason a complete lack of credit but if that same person obtained a secured card or two and waited until those accounts reported then they would have reported trade lines an established credit profile and an established credit score so if they now went into a store to get credit with their Established credit profile and score if they paid their bills as agreed.
They should get approved But if they went into their bank to get a $5,000 credit card, they would still probably be declined because they don't yet have enough established business credit Fundamentally consumer and business credit work exactly the same way Just because you have an employment Identification number does not mean you have established credit just the same as you won't have established Consumer credit just because you have a social security number So if you do walk into a bank and try to get cash credit using your EIN with no credit established You'll always get denied Guaranteed that is unless you did have good personal credit and used it to get approved while supplying your personal guarantee This is why so many people fail building business credit They apply for the wrong type of credit first get tonight Then are convinced that business credit doesn't work If you apply for credit with stores and banks and have no established credit profile for your employment Identification number you will be denied financing Consumer and credit building are just that the building of credit you can't start with the roof You have to start with the foundation first to build off of So you can't start with store or cash credit from your bank if you do you'll get denied 100% of the time First you must build trade lines that report Then you'll have an established credit profile.
Then you'll obtain a business credit score and Finally with an established business credit profile and score.
You can start getting revolving store and cash credit Let's look at some well-known companies business credit Here you can see that Facebook already has 40 business credit trade lines established with Experian Chris oft now has over 130 business credit trade lines established with Experian Apple has 138 business credit trade lines established with Experian Walmart gets 80 percent of their company cash injection from business credit, which is why they have a whopping 513 trade lines reporting to Experian now Every highly successful company in the United States has business credit Walmart, for example has a high credit limit of 50 million dollars reporting But none of these companies started at that limit and were given this many trade lines All of them followed a process to establish their corporate credit and that credit grew with him as their business grew Let's look at some of the most well-known entrepreneurs Steve Jobs Bill Gates Mark Zuckerberg Richard Branson Obviously, none of them were recently personally guaranteeing their business debts When they went out and got a credit line They didn't need to provide their social security number and personally guarantee the debt to get approved Many people might think that they get credit because they're big companies But the reality is the issuing of credit doesn't work this way and never has these entrepreneurs get credit without a personal guarantee because their company's credit can stand on its own not just because they have an EIN The real key to getting business credit is to establish a solid credit profile and score That can stand on its own so you don't need to supply your social security number Once you do this your business can then be approved for credit with no PG or credit check just like every other highly successful company in this country So how do you really start a business credit profile? Most consumer credit starts with secured credit cards or an account that has a well established Cosigner but co-signed accounts and secured accounts really aren't popular or widely used in the business world most business credit star with vendor accounts instead Vendor accounts are accounts that typically offer terms such as net 30 instead of revolving so if you get approved for $1,000 in vendor credit and use all $1,000 of it you'd need to pay that money back in a set term such as within 30 days on a net 30 account and Net 30 account would need to be paid in full within 30 days in Contrast a net 60 account would need to be paid in full within 60 days Unlike with revolving accounts.
You have a set time you must pay back what you borrowed or the credit you used a Net 30 account would need to be paid in full within 30 days in Contrast a net 60 account would need to be paid in full within 60 days Unlike with revolving accounts.
You have a set time.
You must pay back what you borrowed or the credit you used? So to start your business credit profile the right way You need to get approved for vendor accounts that report to the business credit reporting agencies Once you've done this you can then use the credit payback what you used and the accounts get reported to dun & bradstreet Experian Equifax Once reported then you have trade lines an established credit profile and an established credit score Using your newly established business credit profile and score.
You can then get approved for store credit and Eventually cash credit without needing to supply your SSN or personal guarantee This is possible because now your EIN credit profile is established and can stand on its own So if you leave your social security number off of the application the credit issuer then pulls your EIN credit Sees a solid profile and score and can then approve you for real revolving credit? one thing to keep in mind is that when you follow the correct steps to building business credit, not all Retailers will approve you just because of your credit profile and score some sources such as Home Depot or RadioShack also have a time and business requirement possibly requiring you to be in business one to three years to get no personal guarantee Credit some sources such as Home Depot Mart require.
You meet certain revenue requirements for no personal guarantee credit also, But most retailers will approve you without these requirements So now you know that any business can get business credit but before you start getting revolving credit at stores and cash visa type credit from sources like Banks you first must have trade lines reported So basically you need credit to get credit the oh so popular lending paradox that so many people get lost in but there's no need to get lost or stuck building business credit is Actually quite simple once you understand that there is a path You must follow a certain order of credit to apply for it Once you follow this order and get your profile and score started then more and more sources will issue you more and more credit When you have ten or more trade lines the real world of business credit opens up and you get the big reward But without question getting your initial credit is the hardest part We now know that we need vendor accounts to start a business credit profile and score you'll actually need a total of five payment experiences reported to start getting revolving store credit a Payment experience is the reporting of an account to a business credit reporting agency so if you get approved with a vendor who reports to dun and Bradstreet and Experian that would count as two payment experiences if that account only reported two D and B That would be one payment experience You'll need five payment experiences to start getting approved for revolving store credit cards using your EIN Only for approval these are credit cards at places like Best Buy Lowe's staples Amazon Dell Apple Walmart and so on You'll then need a total of ten payment experiences to get approved for cash credit such as Visa and MasterCard type credit and To get that cash credit.
You'll also need to have one of those payment Experiences have a ten thousand dollar limit or higher at least to start getting nice limits on the cash credit you secure Now you're starting to uncover the secret formula for business credit building.
So let's revisit what not to do Don't apply for store credit first.
You'll get denied Don't start with cash or bank credit first.
You'll get tonight Don't put your SSN on the application to start your business credit building They'll pull your personal credit and require a personal guarantee To build business credit the right way, you must first start with vendor accounts, then when you have the necessary reported payment experiences You can move on to store credit next followed by cash credit.
You can get vendor credit immediately starting now It'll take those accounts 30 to 90 days to report giving you a profile and score with that profile and score you can then start getting store credit and In a total of about four to six months after starting the process then you can start to get cash credit 90% of vendors in this country do not report the credit they issue you This is why so many business owners think they have established business credit when they don't so you'll need to find vendors Who do report to the business credit reporting agencies? This is the hardest and most challenging part of building business credit But once you get past this major hurdle, it's much easier to take the rest of the steps to get corporate credit Let's take a look at some true starter vendors You must start a business credit profile and score with starter vendors Starter vendors are ones who will give you initial credit, even if you have no credit no score or no trade lines now Most stores like staples will not give you initial starter credit, so don't even try applying Take a look at some actual true starter vendors Laughlin Associates They deal with corporate setup and compliance.
They report to Experian Only for one one listing and E.
I n number are required for approval Their accounts reports to the business bureaus in 30 to 60 days and they offer net 30 terms Credit era is another true starter vendor account They provide both business and personal credit monitoring.
They report to Experian and D&B They currently have no approval requirements They report to the business bureaus in 180 days and they offer net 30 terms Quill office supplies is a popular starter vendor quill offers office packaging and cleaning supplies They report to D&B You must place initial order first.
Unless DMV score is established Usually they put you on a 90 day prepayment schedule initially before approving you for net 30 terms If you order items each month for 3 months, they typically will approve you for a net 30 account Gamblers is a starter vendor that sells work supplies and products.
They report to D&B You'll need to place an initial order over $50 and select the invoice meat option They will pull your business credit If you are not approved Prepay for your order and keep purchasing and choosing the invoice me option until you get approved for a net 30 account Reliable office supplies sells office supplies and promotional products they report to D&B experian And Equifax to get approved place an initial order then request your order being voiced or billed to your company They will pull your business credit If you are not approved keep ordering and requesting to be invoiced or build The more orders you place the better your chance of being approved for net 30 terms Uline shipping supplies sell shipping packing and industrial supplies, they report to D&B You must have your Duns number for approval They will ask for two references and Bank reference Your first few orders might need to be prepaid to initially get approved for net 30 terms Monopolize your marketplace sells you everything you need to know about marketing and business in a 10 audio CD set They report to Experian They are a true starter account upon checkout choose four equal payments of $59.
99 Option your first charge takes place in 30 days You'll need a bank account ìin number and deliverable address to get approved Allow 30 to 60 days for reporting to the Business Bureaus Remember, you'll need a total of five vendor accounts to start getting store credit We just supplied you ten double what you'll need.
So you have plenty to get started with find the credit you want apply without using your SSN get approved start using your credit and Pay your bills early if you followed the steps in this webinar You should be well on your way with establishing business credit Check out and subscribe to my youtube channel for other tips including ones about setting up your business credibly it's important now get started right away and Keep going building business credit is a never-ending process That can take you and your business to the deepest depths of business success Contact us today to learn more You.
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In computing, a printer is a peripheral devicewhich makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.
The first computer printer designed was amechanically driven apparatus by Charles Babbage for his difference engine in the 19th century;however, his mechanical printer design was not built until 2000.
The first electronic printer was the EP-101,invented by Japanese company Epson and released in 1968.
The first commercial printers generally usedmechanisms from electric typewriters and Teletype machines.
The demand for higher speed led to the developmentof new systems specifically for computer use.
In the 1980s were daisy wheel systems similarto typewriters, line printers that produced similar output but at much higher speed, anddot matrix systems that could mix text and graphics but produced relatively low-qualityoutput.
The plotter was used for those requiring highquality line art like blueprints.
The introduction of the low-cost laser printerin 1984 with the first HP LaserJet, and the addition of PostScript in next year's AppleLaserWriter, set off a revolution in printing known as desktop publishing.
Laser printers using PostScript mixed textand graphics, like dot-matrix printers, but at quality levels formerly available onlyfrom commercial typesetting systems.
By 1990, most simple printing tasks like fliersand brochures were now created on personal computers and then laser printed; expensiveoffset printing systems were being dumped as scrap.
The HP Deskjet of 1988 offered the same advantagesas laser printer in terms of flexibility, but produced somewhat lower quality output(depending on the paper) from much less expensive mechanisms.
Inkjet systems rapidly displaced dot matrixand daisy wheel printers from the market.
By the 2000s high-quality printers of thissort had fallen under the $100 price point and became commonplace.
The rapid update of internet email throughthe 1990s and into the 2000s has largely displaced the need for printing as a means of movingdocuments, and a wide variety of reliable storage systems means that a "physical backup"is of little benefit today.
Even the desire for printed output for "offlinereading" while on mass transit or aircraft has been displaced by e-book readers and tabletcomputers.
Today, traditional printers are being usedmore for special purposes, like printing photographs or artwork, and are no longer a must-haveperipheral.
Starting around 2010, 3D printing became anarea of intense interest, allowing the creation of physical objects with the same sort ofeffort as an early laser printer required to produce a brochure.
These devices are in their earliest stagesof development and have not yet become commonplace.
== Types of printers ==Personal printers are primarily designed to support individual users, and may be connectedto only a single computer.
These printers are designed for low-volume,short-turnaround print jobs, requiring minimal setup time to produce a hard copy of a givendocument.
However, they are generally slow devices rangingfrom 6 to around 25 pages per minute (ppm), and the cost per page is relatively high.
However, this is offset by the on-demand convenience.
Some printers can print documents stored onmemory cards or from digital cameras and scanners.
Networked or shared printers are "designedfor high-volume, high-speed printing".
They are usually shared by many users on anetwork and can print at speeds of 45 to around 100 ppm.
The Xerox 9700 could achieve 120 ppm.
A virtual printer is a piece of computer softwarewhose user interface and API resembles that of a printer driver, but which is not connectedwith a physical computer printer.
A virtual printer can be used to create afile which is an image of the data which would be printed, for archival purposes or as inputto another program, for example to create a PDF or to transmit to another system oruser.
A 3D printer is a device for making a three-dimensionalobject from a 3D model or other electronic data source through additive processes inwhich successive layers of material (including plastics, metals, food, cement, wood, andother materials) are laid down under computer control.
It is called a printer by analogy with aninkjet printer which produces a two-dimensional document by a similar process of depositinga layer of ink on paper.
== Technology ==The choice of print technology has a great effect on the cost of the printer and costof operation, speed, quality and permanence of documents, and noise.
Some printer technologies do not work withcertain types of physical media, such as carbon paper or transparencies.
A second aspect of printer technology thatis often forgotten is resistance to alteration: liquid ink, such as from an inkjet head orfabric ribbon, becomes absorbed by the paper fibers, so documents printed with liquid inkare more difficult to alter than documents printed with toner or solid inks, which donot penetrate below the paper surface.
Cheques can be printed with liquid ink oron special cheque paper with toner anchorage so that alterations may be detected.
The machine-readable lower portion of a chequemust be printed using MICR toner or ink.
Banks and other clearing houses employ automationequipment that relies on the magnetic flux from these specially printed characters tofunction properly.
=== Modern print technology ===The following printing technologies are routinely found in modern printers: ==== Toner-based printers ==== A laser printer rapidly produces high qualitytext and graphics.
As with digital photocopiers and multifunctionprinters (MFPs), laser printers employ a xerographic printing process but differ from analog photocopiersin that the image is produced by the direct scanning of a laser beam across the printer'sphotoreceptor.
Another toner-based printer is the LED printerwhich uses an array of LEDs instead of a laser to cause toner adhesion to the print drum.
==== Liquid inkjet printers ==== Inkjet printers operate by propelling variablysized droplets of liquid ink onto almost any sized page.
They are the most common type of computerprinter used by consumers.
==== Solid ink printers ==== Solid ink printers, also known as phase-changeprinters, are a type of thermal transfer printer.
They use solid sticks of CMYK-coloured ink,similar in consistency to candle wax, which are melted and fed into a piezo crystal operatedprint-head.
The printhead sprays the ink on a rotating,oil coated drum.
The paper then passes over the print drum,at which time the image is immediately transferred, or transfixed, to the page.
Solid ink printers are most commonly usedas colour office printers, and are excellent at printing on transparencies and other non-porousmedia.
Solid ink printers can produce excellent results.
Acquisition and operating costs are similarto laser printers.
Drawbacks of the technology include high energyconsumption and long warm-up times from a cold state.
Also, some users complain that the resultingprints are difficult to write on, as the wax tends to repel inks from pens, and are difficultto feed through automatic document feeders, but these traits have been significantly reducedin later models.
In addition, this type of printer is onlyavailable from one manufacturer, Xerox, manufactured as part of their Xerox Phaser office printerline.
Previously, solid ink printers were manufacturedby Tektronix, but Tek sold the printing business to Xerox in 2001.
==== Dye-sublimation printers ==== A dye-sublimation printer (or dye-sub printer)is a printer which employs a printing process that uses heat to transfer dye to a mediumsuch as a plastic card, paper or canvas.
The process is usually to lay one colour ata time using a ribbon that has colour panels.
Dye-sub printers are intended primarily forhigh-quality colour applications, including colour photography; and are less well-suitedfor text.
While once the province of high-end printshops, dye-sublimation printers are now increasingly used as dedicated consumer photo printers.
==== Thermal printers ==== Thermal printers work by selectively heatingregions of special heat-sensitive paper.
Monochrome thermal printers are used in cashregisters, ATMs, gasoline dispensers and some older inexpensive fax machines.
Colours can be achieved with special papersand different temperatures and heating rates for different colours; these coloured sheetsare not required in black-and-white output.
One example is Zink (a portmanteau of "zeroink").
=== Obsolete and special-purpose printingtechnologies === The following technologies are either obsolete,or limited to special applications though most were, at one time, in widespread use.
==== Impact printers ====Impact printers rely on a forcible impact to transfer ink to the media.
The impact printer uses a print head thateither hits the surface of the ink ribbon, pressing the ink ribbon against the paper(similar to the action of a typewriter), or, less commonly, hits the back of the paper,pressing the paper against the ink ribbon (the IBM 1403 for example).
All but the dot matrix printer rely on theuse of fully formed characters, letterforms that represent each of the characters thatthe printer was capable of printing.
In addition, most of these printers were limitedto monochrome, or sometimes two-color, printing in a single typeface at one time, althoughbolding and underlining of text could be done by "overstriking", that is, printing two ormore impressions either in the same character position or slightly offset.
Impact printers varieties include typewriter-derivedprinters, teletypewriter-derived printers, daisywheel printers, dot matrix printers andline printers.
Dot matrix printers remain in common use inbusinesses where multi-part forms are printed.
An overview of impact printing contains adetailed description of many of the technologies used.
===== Typewriter-derived printers ===== Several different computer printers were simplycomputer-controllable versions of existing electric typewriters.
The Friden Flexowriter and IBM Selectric-basedprinters were the most-common examples.
The Flexowriter printed with a conventionaltypebar mechanism while the Selectric used IBM's well-known "golf ball" printing mechanism.
In either case, the letter form then strucka ribbon which was pressed against the paper, printing one character at a time.
The maximum speed of the Selectric printer(the faster of the two) was 15.
5 characters per second.
===== Teletypewriter-derived printers ===== The common teleprinter could easily be interfacedto the computer and became very popular except for those computers manufactured by IBM.
Some models used a "typebox" that was positioned,in the X- and Y-axes, by a mechanism and the selected letter form was struck by a hammer.
Others used a type cylinder in a similar wayas the Selectric typewriters used their type ball.
In either case, the letter form then strucka ribbon to print the letterform.
Most teleprinters operated at ten charactersper second although a few achieved 15 CPS.
===== Daisy wheel printers ===== Daisy wheel printers operate in much the samefashion as a typewriter.
A hammer strikes a wheel with petals, the"daisy wheel", each petal containing a letter form at its tip.
The letter form strikes a ribbon of ink, depositingthe ink on the page and thus printing a character.
By rotating the daisy wheel, different charactersare selected for printing.
These printers were also referred to as letter-qualityprinters because they could produce text which was as clear and crisp as a typewriter.
The fastest letter-quality printers printedat 30 characters per second.
===== Dot-matrix printers ===== The term dot matrix printer is used for impactprinters that use a matrix of small pins to transfer ink to the page.
The advantage of dot matrix over other impactprinters is that they can produce graphical images in addition to text; however the textis generally of poorer quality than impact printers that use letterforms (type).
Dot-matrix printers can be broadly dividedinto two major classes: Ballistic wire printersStored energy printersDot matrix printers can either be character-based or line-based(that is, a single horizontal series of pixels across the page), referring to the configurationof the print head.
In the 1970s and '80s, dot matrix printerswere one of the more common types of printers used for general use, such as for home andsmall office use.
Such printers normally had either 9 or 24pins on the print head (early 7 pin printers also existed, which did not print descenders).
There was a period during the early home computerera when a range of printers were manufactured under many brands such as the Commodore VIC-1525using the Seikosha Uni-Hammer system.
This used a single solenoid with an obliquestriker that would be actuated 7 times for each column of 7 vertical pixels while thehead was moving at a constant speed.
The angle of the striker would align the dotsvertically even though the head had moved one dot spacing in the time.
The vertical dot position was controlled bya synchronised longitudinally ribbed platen behind the paper that rotated rapidly witha rib moving vertically seven dot spacings in the time it took to print one pixel column.
24-pin print heads were able to print at ahigher quality and started to offer additional type styles and were marketed as Near LetterQuality by some vendors.
Once the price of inkjet printers droppedto the point where they were competitive with dot matrix printers, dot matrix printers beganto fall out of favour for general use.
Some dot matrix printers, such as the NECP6300, can be upgraded to print in colour.
This is achieved through the use of a four-colourribbon mounted on a mechanism (provided in an upgrade kit that replaces the standardblack ribbon mechanism after installation) that raises and lowers the ribbons as needed.
Colour graphics are generally printed in fourpasses at standard resolution, thus slowing down printing considerably.
As a result, colour graphics can take up tofour times longer to print than standard monochrome graphics, or up to 8-16 times as long at highresolution mode.
Dot matrix printers are still commonly usedin low-cost, low-quality applications such as cash registers, or in demanding, very highvolume applications like invoice printing.
Impact printing, unlike laser printing, allowsthe pressure of the print head to be applied to a stack of two or more forms to print multi-partdocuments such as sales invoices and credit card receipts using continuous stationerywith carbonless copy paper.
Dot-matrix printers were being supersededeven as receipt printers after the end of the twentieth century.
===== Line printers ===== Line printers print an entire line of textat a time.
Four principal designs exist.
Drum printers, where a horizontally mountedrotating drum carries the entire character set of the printer repeated in each printablecharacter position.
The IBM 1132 printer is an example of a drumprinter.
Drum printers are also found in adding machinesand other numeric printers (POS), the dimensions are compact as only a dozen characters needto be supported.
Chain or train printers, where the characterset is arranged multiple times around a linked chain or a set of character slugs in a tracktraveling horizontally past the print line.
The IBM 1403 is perhaps the most popular,and comes in both chain and train varieties.
The band printer is a later variant wherethe characters are embossed on a flexible steel band.
The LP27 from Digital Equipment Corporationis a band printer.
Bar printers, where the character set is attachedto a solid bar that moves horizontally along the print line, such as the IBM 1443.
A fourth design, used mainly on very earlyprinters such as the IBM 402, features independent type bars, one for each printable position.
Each bar contains the character set to beprinted.
The bars moves vertically to position thecharacter to be printed in front of the print hammer.
In each case, to print a line, preciselytimed hammers strike against the back of the paper at the exact moment that the correctcharacter to be printed is passing in front of the paper.
The paper presses forward against a ribbonwhich then presses against the character form and the impression of the character form isprinted onto the paper.
Each system could have slight timing issues,which could cause minor misalignment of the resulting printed characters.
For drum or typebar printers, this appearedas vertical misalignment, with characters being printed slightly above or below therest of the line.
In chain or bar printers, the misalignmentwas horizontal, with printed characters being crowded closer together or farther apart.
This was much less noticeable to human visionthan vertical misalignment, where characters seemed to bounce up and down in the line,so they were considered as higher quality print.
Comb printers, also called line matrix printers,represent the fifth major design.
These printers are a hybrid of dot matrixprinting and line printing.
In these printers, a comb of hammers printsa portion of a row of pixels at one time, such as every eighth pixel.
By shifting the comb back and forth slightly,the entire pixel row can be printed, continuing the example, in just eight cycles.
The paper then advances and the next pixelrow is printed.
Because far less motion is involved than ina conventional dot matrix printer, these printers are very fast compared to dot matrix printersand are competitive in speed with formed-character line printers while also being able to printdot matrix graphics.
The Printronix P7000 series of line matrixprinters are still manufactured as of 2013.
Line printers are the fastest of all impact printersand are used for bulk printing in large computer centres.
A line printer can print at 1100 lines perminute or faster, frequently printing pages more rapidly than many current laser printers.
On the other hand, the mechanical componentsof line printers operate with tight tolerances and require regular preventive maintenance(PM) to produce top quality print.
They are virtually never used with personalcomputers and have now been replaced by high-speed laser printers.
The legacy of line printers lives on in manycomputer operating systems, which use the abbreviations "lp", "lpr", or "LPT" to referto printers.
==== Liquid ink electrostatic printers ====Liquid ink electrostatic printers use a chemical coated paper, which is charged by the printhead according to the image of the document.
The paper is passed near a pool of liquidink with the opposite charge.
The charged areas of the paper attract theink and thus form the image.
This process was developed from the processof electrostatic copying.
Color reproduction is very accurate, and becausethere is no heating the scale distortion is less than ±0.
(All laser printers have an accuracy of ±1%.
) Worldwide, most survey offices used this printerbefore color inkjet plotters become popular.
Liquid ink electrostatic printers were mostlyavailable in 36 to 54 inches (910 to 1,370 mm) width and also 6 color printing.
These were also used to print large billboards.
It was first introduced by Versatec, whichwas later bought by Xerox.
3M also used to make these printers.
==== Plotters ==== Pen-based plotters were an alternate printingtechnology once common in engineering and architectural firms.
Pen-based plotters rely on contact with thepaper (but not impact, per se) and special purpose pens that are mechanically run overthe paper to create text and images.
Since the pens output continuous lines, theywere able to produce technical drawings of higher resolution than was achievable withdot-matrix technology.
Some plotters used roll-fed paper, and thereforehad minimal restriction on the size of the output in one dimension.
These plotters were capable of producing quitesizable drawings.
=== Other printers ===A number of other sorts of printers are important for historical reasons, or for special purposeuses Digital minilab (photographic paper)Electrolytic printers Spark printerBarcode printer multiple technologies, including: thermal printing, inkjet printing, and laserprinting barcodes Billboard / sign paint spray printersLaser etching (product packaging) industrial printersMicrosphere (special paper) == Attributes == === Printer control languages === Most printers other than line printers acceptcontrol characters or unique character sequences to control various printer functions.
These may range from shifting from lower toupper case or from black to red ribbon on typewriter printers to switching fonts andchanging character sizes and colors on raster printers.
Early printer controls were not standardized,with each manufacturer's equipment having its own set.
The IBM Personal Printer Data Stream (PPDS)became a commonly used command set for dot-matrix printers.
Today, most printers accept one or more pagedescription languages (PDLs).
Laser printers with greater processing powerfrequently offer support for variants of Hewlett-Packard's Printer Command Language (PCL), PostScriptor XML Paper Specification.
Most inkjet devices support manufacturer proprietaryPDLs such as ESC/P.
The diversity in mobile platforms have led to various standardizationefforts around device PDLs such as the Printer Working Group (PWG's) PWG Raster.
=== Printing speed ===The speed of early printers was measured in units of charactersper minute (cpm) for character printers, or lines per minute (lpm) for line printers.
Modern printers are measured in pages perminute (ppm).
These measures are used primarily as a marketingtool, and are not as well standardised as toner yields.
Usually pages per minute refers to sparsemonochrome office documents, rather than dense pictures which usually print much more slowly,especially colour images.
Speeds in ppm usually apply to A4 paper inEurope and letter paper, about 6% shorter, in the United States.
=== Printing mode ===The data received by a printer may be: A string of charactersA bitmapped image A vector imageA computer program written in a page description language, such as PCL or PostScriptSome printerscan process all four types of data, others not.
Character printers, such as daisy wheel printers,can handle only plain text data or rather simple point plots.
Pen plotters typically process vector images.
Inkjet based plotters can adequately reproduceall four.
Modern printing technology, such as laserprinters and inkjet printers, can adequately reproduce all four.
This is especially true of printers equippedwith support for PCL or PostScript, which includes the vast majority of printers producedtoday.
Today it is possible to print everything (even plain text) by sending ready bitmappedimages to the printer.
This allows better control over formatting,especially among machines from different vendors.
Many printer drivers do not use the text modeat all, even if the printer is capable of it.
=== Monochrome, colour and photo printers=== A monochrome printer can only produce an imageconsisting of one colour, usually black.
A monochrome printer may also be able to producevarious tones of that color, such as a grey-scale.
A colour printer can produce images of multiplecolours.
A photo printer is a colour printer that canproduce images that mimic the colour range (gamut) and resolution of prints made fromphotographic film.
Many can be used on a standalone basis withouta computer, using a memory card or USB connector.
=== Page yield ===The page yield is number of pages that can be printed from a toner cartridge or ink cartridge—beforethe cartridge needs to be refilled or replaced.
The actual number of pages yielded by a specificcartridge depends on a number of factors.
For a fair comparison, many laser printer manufacturersuse the ISO/IEC 19752 process to measure the toner cartridge yield.
=== Cost per page ===In order to fairly compare operating expenses of printers with a relatively small ink cartridgeto printers with a larger, more expensive toner cartridge that typically holds moretoner and so prints more pages before the cartridge needs to be replaced, many peopleprefer to estimate operating expenses in terms of cost per page (CPP).
=== Business model ===Often the "razor and blades" business model is applied.
That is, a company may sell a printer at cost,and make profits on the ink cartridge, paper, or some other replacement part.
This has caused legal disputes regarding theright of companies other than the printer manufacturer to sell compatible ink cartridges.
To protect their business model, several manufacturersinvest heavily in developing new cartridge technology and patenting it.
Other manufacturers, in reaction to the challengesfrom using this business model, choose to make more money on printers and less on theink, promoting the latter through their advertising campaigns.
Finally, this generates two clearly differentproposals: "cheap printer – expensive ink" or "expensive printer – cheap ink".
Ultimately, the consumer decision dependson their reference interest rate or their time preference.
From an economics viewpoint, there is a cleartrade-off between cost per copy and cost of the printer.
=== Printer steganography === Printer steganography is a type of steganography– "hiding data within data" – produced by color printers, including Brother, Canon,Dell, Epson, HP, IBM, Konica Minolta, Kyocera, Lanier, Lexmark, Ricoh, Toshiba and Xeroxbrand color laser printers, where tiny yellow dots are added to each page.
The dots are barely visible and contain encodedprinter serial numbers, as well as date and time stamps.
=== Wireless printers ===More than half of all printers sold at U.
retail in 2010 were wireless-capable, butnearly three-quarters of consumers who have access to those printers weren't taking advantageof the increased access to print from multiple devices according to the new Wireless PrintingStudy.
== See also.